Types and degrees of flat feet
The main and the most common type of flat feet, both in children and in adults, is static flat feet, the main causes of which are weak muscle tone (in children), excessive fatigue due to prolonged standing on feet, excess weight, professional type of activity, features anatomical structure, frequent static and dynamic loads (in women during pregnancy), abuse of narrow high-heeled shoes, etc.

Flat feet associated with trauma are less common. This can be a fracture of the bones of the foot, ankles, or even a slight sprain of the ligaments.

Usually, after the treatment of the trauma, the complex system of the ligamentous apparatus of the foot and the ankle joint begins to work with its own biomechanics, which can lead to progressive deformation of the limb, therefore, the use of orthopedic aids and devices is a justified and necessary part of post-traumatic rehabilitation measures.
The main reasons for the development of flat feet are usually
Due to the arches and movable articulation of the bones of the foot, it springs when walking and softens the blows.
  • The longitudinal arch
    of the foot forms an arch from the inside from the base of the big toe to the heel
  • The transverse arch
    of the foot is located across the foot from the base of the big toe to the little finger
There are three types of flat feet
  • Longitudinal
  • Transverse
  • Combined
    (it's longitudinal and transverse at the same time)
With longitudinal flat feet, the longitudinal arch of the foot is flattened, it often occurs in childhood, even at the stage of foot formation.

Transverse flatfoot is characterized by flattening of the front part of the foot.

It is very important to define the degree of flat foot because the severity of the problem and the necessary measures to be taken depend on it.
How to determine the degree of flat foot?
Degrees correspond to a certain stage of development of foot deformation.
  • 1st degree
    The initial degree of the disease, in which the foot is not yet deformed, but significant weakening of the ligaments is already noticeable. Appears discomfort and pain after a long walk and standing on the feet, which disappears after a night's rest. The bony bases of the first two fingers at this stage deviate by 10-12°, and the finger itself — up to 15-20°. It is possible to determine the appearance of the disease by the pain that occurs when pressing on the plantar arches.
  • 2nd degree
    It is shown by a sharp decrease in the arch of the foot with noticeable flattening and expansion. Pain becomes constant and spreads higher - to the shins (tibia). Long walks and standing on feet are impossible due to severe pain and discomfort. Posture and gait are disturbed. The angles of the bony bases and thumb are increased by 15° and 30°, respectively.
  • 3rd degree
    Symptoms of flat feet become very noticeable even with the naked eye, fingers are deformed. Legs hurt constantly, possible development of accompanying pathologies in the form of arthrosis, deformation of the spine and the appearance of the Charcot joint. The load on the spine increases significantly, because of which work capacity is disrupted and even short-term walking in ordinary shoes becomes impossible. Angles increase to 20° and 40°.
  • 4th degree
    Diagnosed exclusively in the case of transverse flatfoot, when there is a maximum angle of deviation of the big toe and bone bases of more than 40° and 20°.
Plantogram of the foot. a. normal foot, b. 1st degree transverse flatfoot, c. 2nd degree transverse flatfoot, d. 3rd degree transverse flatfoot, e. Flat foot