Types of foot deformities
Flat feet
Flatfoot is a pathological deformity of the foot, in which there is a lowering of the foot arch and a loss of cushioning function. It is characterized by the flattening of the longitudinal arch of the foot, the valgus position of the rear part of the foot and the abduction-pronation position of the front part.

Flatfoot is often accompanied by violations of the anatomical and functional interaction of the muscular, connective tissue and bone systems of the foot.
Hollow foot
Hollow foot is a pathological change in the arch, characterized by an increase in its height. This disease is the opposite of flat feet, often occurs against the background of injuries and some problems in the neuromuscular system. It is rarely detected as hereditary.

With a high degree of deformity hollow footness is accompanied by the equinus and varus position of the foot, the lowering of the first metatarsal bone and hammer-shaped deformity of the fingers.

The first symptoms are: pain under the heads of the metatarsal bones, fatigue and difficulty in choosing comfortable shoes.

With mild forms of hollow feet, there is no need for special treatment, majority of patients adjust themselves to feet. In case of overweight of the patient or heavy physical exertion, insoles are suggested for physical unloading of the longitudinal and transverse arch of the foot.

In case of hollow foot, special insoles support an extremely vivid longitudinal arch of the foot during high physical activity, and give the hindfoot a pronation position.

Valgus deformation of the first toe (hallux valgus)
During this pathology, bone growth is observed in the area of the base of the thumb. Valgus deformation of the first toe from the outside, is an acquired pathology and is usually combined with the flattening of the forefoot (or is its consequence).

The disease progresses slowly and usually develops by the age of 30-50, more often in women.

It develops most often due to wearing uncomfortable shoes or injuries. In severe forms of the development of the disease, the joint of the thumb can increase in size, hurt, react at the change of weather.

For mild degrees, it is recommended to wear insoles and prevent the progression of transverse flat feet, it is also recommended to wear silicone corrective products between the first and second fingers. Such products will eliminate the dorsal flexion of the thumb that occurs during walking.
Hammer toe deformity
These are pathological changes expressed in the curvature of the fingers (one or more), in which the phalanges take a bent position, resembling a hammer.

In most cases, this pathology is a consequence of other diseases of the bones and joints of the musculoskeletal system.

Hammertoe deformity of the toes can occur either on its own or accompanied by other deformities of the foot as a consequences of spastic cerebral palsy, poliomyelitis, flat-valgus foot, hollow foot, etc.

Characteristic is the formation of painful calluses under the toes (hyperkeratosis), which prevent wearing normal shoes. In case of this disease, it is desirable to use special silicone inserts, as well as individual insoles with an additional pad for the fingers.
Heel spur
Heel spur (plantar fasciitis) - bony growths on the plantar surface of the calcaneus. The disease is associated with inflammation of the tendons, ligaments and muscles that are located in the heel area.
Due to the inflammatory process, bony growths begin to form on the heel bone. As these growths grow, they damage the soft tissues, causing pain and serious discomfort.

Most often, the calcaneal spur looks like a sharp bone spike directed to the anterior part with a base that merges with the calcaneus. The bone spike can be of various sizes and shapes.

Heel spurs can be unilateral or bilateral. Bursitis may develop in the area of the heel spur. In turn, bursitis in this area can lead to heel spurs.

Conservative treatment includes the use of special insoles with an unloading segment under the heel.
Marching foot
Marching fractures of the metatarsal bones of the foot are the result of a functional pathological restructuring of the bones of the foot which is caused by overloading. A similar restructuring of bone tissue occurs in osteochondropathy.
The cause of the disease is overload during long walking, and preconditions are flat feet and tight shoes.

Marching feet fractures arise from a permanent injury and loads on a bone that is “unprepared” for these functional loads.

When marching feet fractures of the metatarsal bones in combination with flat feet, it is advisable to use individual insoles. The biomechanics and function of the foot are not affected.